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Endothelial Cell Metabolism Determines Healthy or Diseased Revascularization of the Ischemic Retina

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Paper Presentation | Présentation d'article
4:49 PM, Friday 16 Jun 2023 (5 minutes)
Québec City Convention Centre - Room 307 AB | Salle 307 AB

Authors: Sheetal Pundir  1, Gael Cagnone2, Jin Sung Kim3, Florian Wünnemann4, Clary B. Clish5, Bruno Maranda6, Sergio Crespo-Garcia7, Gregor Andelfinger8, Jean Sébastien Joyal91McGill University Health Centre, 2CHU St.Justine, 3McGill University, 4Montreal Heart Institute, 5The Broad institute of MIT and Harvard University, 6Sherbrooke University, 7Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 8University of Montreal, 9University of Montreal, CHU St. Justine.

Author Disclosures: S. Pundir:   None.  G. Cagnone:   None.  J. Kim:   None.  F. Wünnemann:   None.  C.B. Clish:   None.  B. Maranda:   None.  S. Crespo-Garcia:   None.  G. Andelfinger:   None.  J.S. Joyal:   None.


Abstract Body: 

Purpose:   Glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation are known energy sources for endothelial cells to support angiogenesis, but the specific metabolic reliance of physiological and pathological neovessels is ill-defined.    We have studied the role of fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis in pathological angiogenesis in diabetic retinopathy and in mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity.   

Study Design:   Basic (experimental)   Methods:   We used a multiomics approach to study the metabolic hallmarks of physiological and pathological angiogenesis in proliferative retinopathies. We compared the metabolomic profile of human vitreous from proliferative diabetic retinopathy subjects to a mouse model of proliferative retinopathy (PR). In mouse PR we enriched retinal endothelial cells and performed a single-cell transcriptomics analysis to identify transcriptional signature for pathological neovessels.   

Results:   Physiological angiogenesis revascularizes the ischemic retina, while misguided pathological neovessels grow towards the vitreous. We analysed the metabolite profile in vitreous humor samples from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. We observed an accumulation of fatty acyl carnitines, by-products of mitochondrial fatty-acid-oxidation (FAO) in diabetic retinopathy samples compared to controls. In mouse PR, using unbiased large-scale approaches combining metabolomics and single-cell transcriptomics, we observed distinct metabolic pathways define glycolytic migratory tip endothelial cells (ECs), essential to the regenerative process, and misguided yet actively proliferating neovascular endothelial cells (nvECs) that rely instead on fatty acid oxidation. Direct comparison showed 449 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between healthy tip EC and nvEC (P value < 0.05, log2(FC) > 0.5. nvECs up-regulated genes were significantly enriched in pathways such as fatty-acid degradation, tyrosine and nicotinamide metabolism, whereas tip ECs were enriched for extra-cellular matrix-receptor interaction, and glycolysis. Inhibition of FAO in ischemic retina primed endothelial metabolism to glycolysis, accelerated physiological revascularization and improved visual function.  

Conclusions:   In this study, we have defined the metabolic traits of the healthy and diseased vasculature in proliferative retinopathy. Our results illustrate shifting the metabolism towards glycolysis can inhibit pathological vessel formation and improve vision. We identified fatty acid oxidation as a metabolic hallmark of pathological angiogenesis.

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