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Bacterial keratitis, clinical features, causative organisms and outcomes during a 13-year study period

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Paper Presentation | Présentation d'article
2:13 PM, Saturday 17 Jun 2023 (3 minutes)
Québec City Convention Centre - Room 307 AB | Salle 307 AB

Authors: Waleed Alsarhani 1, Abdulmohsen Almulhim2, Muhannad Alkhalifah2, Hatem Kalantan2.  1University of Toronto, 2

Author Disclosures: W. Alsarhani:   None.  A. Almulhim:  None.   M. Alkhalifah:  None.  H. Kalantan:   None.


Abstract Body: 

Purpose:  This study aimed to review clinical features, causative organisms, complications, and outcome of bacterial keratitis cases at a tertiary eye hospital.   

Study Design:  A retrospective study was conducted on clinically diagnosed bacterial keratitis cases from 2007 to 2019.  Methods:  All cases included were cultured, and based on the result of the culture, cases were grouped into culture-positive and culture-negative cohorts. Poor outcome was flagged if any of the following was identified: final visual acuity (VA) worse than 20/200, decrease in VA (1 line or worse compared with presenting VA), corneal perforation, endophthalmitis, failed graft, or cases requiring enucleation or evisceration.  

Results:   The study included 263 cases of bacterial keratitis with 169 cases (64.3%) of culture-positive bacterial keratitis. Gram-positive bacteria were found to be the causative organism in 106 cases (62.8%). The most common types were coagulase-negative staphylococci (23.1%) and Pseudomonas (23.1%). Culture-positive bacterial keratitis was associated with the development of anterior chamber reaction (≥ 1+) on multivariate analysis [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.03, confidence interval (CI): 1.23-7.45, P = 0.016]. The complications that occurred in the current cohort included visually significant scar (64.7%), perforation (10.8%), cataract (8.8%), nonhealing epithelial defects (8.0%), corneal neovascularization (4.9%), endophthalmitis (4.6%), and hypotony (1.5%). On multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.51, CI: 1.59-7.76, P = 0.002), poor presenting best-corrected VA (adjusted OR: 3.95, CI 1.96-7.96, P , 0.001), and positive cultures (adjusted OR: 2.36, CI: 1.11-5.00, P = 0.025) were associated with poor outcome.   

Conclusions:  Culture-negative keratitis had less severe infection and better outcomes when compared to culture-positive bacterial keratitis. Factors associated with poor outcome included diabetes, poor presenting VA, and positive cultures.

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